Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care

Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care

Proper knowledge and tire care understanding is one of the best ways to maximize the value and efficiency of fleets.

Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care / Tire Basics

2 Common Standard Tire Sizes:

  1. 315/80R22.5
  2. 10.00R20

For more details, view the pictures below:

Example 1: 315/80R22.5


A Nominal Section Width (mm)
B Nominal Aspect Ratio
C Radial Structure Code
D Nominal Rim Diameter (in)
E 154/150M
154: Load Index (Single)
150: Load Index (Dual)
M Speed Rating
F Ply Rating
G Tubeless Tire
H Regroovable Indicator
I Pattern Name
J Belt Winding Direction
K Tire Rolling Direction

The table below lists the appropriate speed rating with the corresponding load index

Example 2: 10.00R20


A Nominal Section Width (in)
B Radial Structure Code
C Nominal Rim Diameter (in)
D 154/150M
154: Load Index (Single)
150: Load Index (Dual)
M Speed Rating
E Ply Rating
F Tubeless Tire
G Regroovable Indicator
H Pattern Name
I Belt Winding Direction
J Tire Rolling Direction

The table below lists the appropriate speed rating with the corresponding load index

Speed Rating

 SI  Km/h
B 50
C 60
D 65
E 70
F 80
G  90
K  110
L  120
M  130
N  140
P  150
Q  160
R 170


Load Index

 Load Index              kg    Load Index  kg  Load Index  kg 
 115 1215   136 2240 157  4125
 116 1250  137 2300 158 4250 
 117 1285   138 2360 159 4375
 118 1320   139 2430 160 4500 
 119 1360  140 2500 161 4625 
 120 1400  141 2575 162 4750 
 121 1450   142 2650 163 4825 
 122 1500  143 2725 164 5000
123 1550 144 2800 165 5150
124 1600 145 2900 166 5300
125 1650 146 3000 167 5450
126 1700 147 3075 168 5600
127 1750 148 3150 169 5800
128 1800 149 3250 170 6000
129 1850 150 3350 171 6150
130 1900 151 3450 172 6300
131 1950 152 3550 173 6500
132 2000 153 3650 174 6700
133 2060 154 3750 175 6900
134 2120 155 3850 176 7100
135 2180 156 4000 177 7300


Tire Dimensions

S: Section Width
H: Section Height
R: Free Radius
R’: Loaded Radius
E: Distance Between Dual Tires
D: Free Diameter (R x 2)
Ø: Rim Diameter

Load index is subject to the driving speed, tire structure, and tire mounting position (single or dual). The US TRA, Korea KS, EU ETRTO, and Japan JIS standards all follow the same load index.

Trucks & Buses

The table below shows the smallest index under cold tire conditions.

Speed Rating (km/h) Air Pressure Load
Bias Tire Radial Tire Standard Tire Standard Tire
110-120 +10PSI +5PSI -12% -12%
96-110 +10PSI +5PSI -4% -4%
81-95 No Increase No Increase  0  0
66-80 No Increase No Increase +9% +7%
51-65 No Increase No Increase +16% +9%
31-50 No Increase +10PSI +24% +12%
20-30 No Increase +15PSI +32% +17%


Light Truck

The table below shows the smallest index under cold tire conditions.

Speed Rating (km/h) Air Pressure Load
110-120 +10PSI 10%
96-110 +10PSI  -
81-95 No Increase  -
66-80 No Increase +9%
51-65 No Increase +16%
31-50 No Increase +24%
20-30 No Increase +32%


Air pressure can be appropriately increased under the following conditions:

A. Increase speed and load requirements

B. For better handling

However, the increased air pressure should not exceed the specified maximum load, 20 psi, nor exceed the maximum load and air pressure required by the rim.

Over inflation will lead to tire blowout which affects driving safety and increases operating costs!

1Step 1

First, inspect the tire thoroughly to determine if it is repairable.

2Step 2

If any damage is found, mark the position both inside and outside with a crayon.

3Step 3

Remove the foreign object that caused the damage.

4Step 4

Check if there is any hidden damage inside or outside with a puncture probe.

5Step 5

Determine the damage angle from inside out with a drill bit.

6Step 6

If the damage is greater than 25°, use the two part separation method to repair. If the diameter of the damage is within 15 mm, use an integral radial plug.

7Step 7

Align the center of the repair material with the center of the damage, and draw a peripheral line 25 mm beyond the repair material as the buffing line.

8Step 8

Spray the area with a rubber cleaner.

9Step 9

When the tire is still wet, scrape off the foreign objects with a scraper.

10Step 10

Use a rubber buffing wheel and a low-speed pneumatic buffing machine to buff the previously marked area.

11Step 11

Use a carbide cutter and a low-speed pneumatic drill to cut along the damaged area from inside to outside in a clockwise direction for at least three times.

12Step 12

Repeat step 11 from outside to inside for three times to make sure the damaged area is properly treated.

13Step 13

Use a vacuum cleaner to remove the steel slag and scrap rubber on both sides of the tire.

14Step 14

Use the rubber cleaner and a clean cloth to remove the contaminants by wiping the tire outward from the center. Repeat this step until the buffed area is completely clean. Wait 3-4 minutes for the cleaner to completely dry.

15Step 15

With a brush, apply the curing agent both inside and outside the buffed hole.Step 16
Apply the curing agent on the buffed area outward from the center, and wait 3-5 minutes for it to dry.

16Step 16

Apply the curing agent on the buffed area outward from the center, and wait 3-5 minutes for it to dry.

17Step 17

Position the steel string puller around the middle of the exposed black rubber stem.

18Step 18

Remove the blue film wrapping the rubber stem.

19Step 19

Remove the blue film from the crown and reposition it (see picture). This is to avoid unnecessary adhesion during the pulling process and contamination of the grey cushion gum.

20Step 20

Position the integral radial plug horizontally, and apply the curing agent on the cone part of the rubber stem and on the edge of the gray adhesive.

21Step 21

Drill the steel string puller through the hole paying special attention to the alignment of the arrow with the tire toe.

22Step 22

Pull the steel string puller from the inside out so that the integral radial plug is secured in place.

23Step 23

After the rubber stem is pulled out of the hole, check if arrow 5 is aligned with the tire toe. Continue pulling until the reinforced crown is pressed against the inner tire surface.

24Step 24

Use your thumb to press the crown into position.

25-2Step 25

Use a compaction roller to secure the crown in place from the center out.

26-2Step 26

Remove the blue film and repeat the step above until the crown is completely compacted.

27Step 27

Remove the white film.

28Step 28

Apply safety sealant to the crown and along the polished site, when tubeless tire is repaired.

29Step 29

Cut the rubber stem so that it is leveled with the tread. If the rubber stem is in the groove, use a carving machine to carve it so that it matches the tread.

30Step 30

The repair process is completed, and the tire can now be put back into service.

1Step 1

The tire and tube should be cleared of debris before assembly. It is recommended to apply dry and finely grounded talc or graphite powder uniformly on the surface of the tire inner wall, tube, and flap.

2Step 2

When placing the folded tube into the tire, the valve stem must be face upwards. Unfold and flatten the inner tube when inserting it into the tire. Remove the tube valve cap.

3Step 3

Check if the flap is assembled in the correct position. Set the flap on the tube valve stem, between the tube and the tire. Make sure there are no wrinkles or folds on the flap edge.

4Step 4

Apply noncorrosive lubricants uniformly on the bead. Install the tire onto the rim, aligning the valve with the rim valve slot.

5Step 5

Insert the ring (compression ring) into the groove.

6Step 6

Make sure all the components are properly installed and match with each other. Remove the tube valve core and inflate the tire pressure to the recommended 350 kPa. Using a wooden mallet, tap along the tire circumference so that the tire fits tightly with the rim.

7Step 7

Check to see if the tire is installed correctly. If not, deflate the tire and readjust the position of the tire and the rim.

8Step 8

After the tire is assembled, check to see that each component is installed properly before inflating the tire. Then inflate the tire to the specified pressure level and measure with a pressure gauge.


A. Tires must be installed on specified rims. The rims cannot be deformed, rusted, non-circular, cracked, unevenly welded, loosed, or sharp-edged.
B. Only tires with the same specification, structure, brand, size, ply rating, and pattern can be installed on the same axle.
C. Install directional tire so that the rotation direction is consistent with the vehicle’s traveling direction.
D. When replacing new tires, it is recommended to replace all the tires on vehicle or at least on the same axle.
E. Use special tools or machinery to install and remove tube tires.
F. During tire inflation, the operator should not stand to the side of the tire.

1Step 1

Choose the correct rim size and model for your tire. It is recommended to replace the rim if there are damages or cracks.

2Step 2

Clean the rim with clean cotton towels.

3Step 3

Tighten the valve stem cap to prevent the valve from loosening and leaking air.

4Step 4

Apply noncorrosive lubricants uniformly on the bead. Install the tire onto the rim by aligning the valve with the rim valve slot.

5Step 5

Check if the tire is damaged or cracked. If so, replace or repair the tire immediately. Clean the tire (recommend using special tire cleaners) by wiping off the moisture or debris inside the tire with a clean cotton towel.

6Step 6

Use lubricants to protect the tire from damage. Lubricate the bead and rim edge uniformly.

7Step 7

Align the balance point (white dot) with the valve, tilt the tire to place it onto the rim, and fix the rim in place using splints.

8Step 8

Insert the indenter from the bottom of the rim and rotate the main axle clockwise. Never install both beads at the same time to avoid bead damage.

9Step 9

Inflate the tire to the recommended pressure of 350 kPa. Check to see if the tire is installed correctly (tire line matches up with rim edge). If not, deflate the tire and readjust the position of the tire and the rim.

10Step 10

After the tire is assembled, check to see that each component is installed properly before inflating the tire. Then inflate the tire to the specified pressure level and measure with a pressure gauge. During tire inflation, the operator should not stand to the side of the tire.

1. Tubeless Tire Features:

  • Outer diameter of a tubeless tire is the same as a tube tire, so the gear ratio will not change before or after a tire change
  • Rim diameter is 2 inches wider with better heat dissipation and lower temperatures
  • Load capacity remains the same with a lighter rim


2. Advantages of Tubeless Tires: 10% Lighter Than Tube Tires

1aLower sidewall for more accurate and safer steering and handling

1bFewer components with lower friction and rolling resistance for better fuel efficiency

1cSuperior heat dissipation and lower temperatures for longer tire life

1dBetter contact area with uniform wear for longer tire life

1eLess components and lighter weight for reduced fuel consumption

3. Basic Components of a Tubeless Tire

Tubeless Tire (3 Basic Components)

2 (1)

For example, 12R22.5 18PR GAL817:

3 (1)

A: Casing = 64.21 kg
B: Rim and Valve = 47.55 kg
Total Weight: 111.76 kg

Tube Tire Tubeless Tire
Bias Tire Radial Tire 90 Series 80 Series 75 Series 70 Series 65 Series
7.00-16 7.00R16 8R17.5 / 205/75R17.5 / /
7.50-16 7.50R16 8.5R17.5 / 215/75R17.5 / /
8.25-16 8.25R16 9.5R17.5 / 235/75R17.5 245/70R19.5 /
7.50-20 7.50R20 8R22.5 / / / /
8.25-20 8.25R20 9R22.5 / / / /
9.00-20 9.00R20 10R22.5 / / 255/70R22.5 /
10.00-20 10.00R20 11R22.5 275/80R22.5 295/75R22.5 275/70R22.5 /
11.00-20 11.00R20 12R22.5 295/80R22.5 / / 385/65R22.5
12.00-20 12.00R20 13R22.5 315/80R22.5 / 315/70R22.5 425/65R22.5


notify-iconDisclaimer: This Specification Guidance Table for Replacement is only for reference. Giti does not assume any responsibility for it. When replacing tires, please consult with your local distributor and take into consideration the rim, tire specification, load, handling, and other factors.

Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care / Maximizing Tire Life

Why Should We Perform Regular Tire Pressure Checks?


Tire Pressure will naturally decrease over time.

New tire will decrease 70 kPa (0.7 kgf/cm2) within a month.

Dangers of Low Tire Pressure

2aAbnormal Shoulder Wear On Both Sides

2bDeformed Sidewalls (Steel Wire Detaches From Rubber)

2cSidewalls Easily Broken

2dIncreased Fuel Consumption

Dangers of High Tire Pressure

1. Tire Damage

  • Decreased buffering capacity and shock resistance leads to more broken steel wires or tire blowouts
  • Smaller contact area between tire and the ground leads to faster wear, especially in the center, resulting in shorter tire life
  • Increased skidding


2. Road Damage

  • High tire pressure without overloading, will damage the road due to the effects of force and counterforce


3. Rim Damage

  • High tire pressure causes greater vibration which leads to rim damage


4. Vehicle Component Damage

  • High tire pressure increases vibrations and damages vehicle components, while proper tire pressure has better buffering capacity


notify-iconWhen the tire pressure is maintained at 10kg/cm², tire life can be extended by 40%


Purpose of Tire Rotation

  1. Shoulder and bead failure becomes a concern when transporting heavy cargo. Proper tire rotation can extend tire life.
  2. Partial Wear at a Fixed Position

1 (1)

Tire Rotation Method

  1. First Rotation: perform 2-3 rotations until the tires are completely worn
  2. Second Rotation: if possible, rotate tires between different axles for better results
    When using dual tires, the inner tires usually bear more weight and absorb more heat from the brake drums.


Key Points of Tire Rotation

  1. Change the rolling direction
  2. Rotate between front wheels, trailer wheels, and drive axels
  3. Tire rotation frequency should be higher during the initial stage of wear

Effects of Tire Rotation

1. Example of a Standard Long Distance Truck Driver

A driver uses 3 test vehicles to perform tire rotation respectively at wear rates of 20%, 40%, and 60%. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the optimal rotation approach is to have the load between 100-130% with a speed of 80km/h.

  Total Life * Cost/km
Optimal Position 122 84
Fixed Position 100 100

*Includes the extended tire life and cost for 2 tire rotations

2. Example of Overloading

Load: 180-320% 40-50km/h (actual tire life before failure)

  Actual Tire Life Wear Rate Tire Life Index
Rotated Position 49,700km 82%  260% 
Fixed Position 19,100km 37%  100% 

Tire Pressure




Average Speed


Vehicle Load


Trailer Wheel Position


Road Conditions


Retread tire mainly refers to retreading the tire crown.

For the majority of drivers, retread tires save money!

How much money can you actually save?

Let’s do some calculations.

1For Example: 12R22.5 16PR PAL525
New Tire Price Index 100
Retreaded Tire Price Index 60*
Tire Casing Sell Price Index 10*
New Tire Mileage and Life Index 100
*Price indices are only provided as examples
For an accurate calculation, please use actual numbers.

Standard Rule

* Retread Cost Index = Retread Price Index - Tire Casing Sell Price Index = 60 – 10 = 50
* Under normal conditions, retreaded Giti tires can reach 80% of the mileage on new tires.
Retreaded Tire Mileage and Life Index = New Tire Mileage and Life Index x 80% = 80

4 (1)

Conclusion: Maximize tire life and reduce operating costs with retreaded tires 

Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care / Fuel Efficiency

1Vehicles need to consume fuel to overcome driving resistance since fuel is the only power source, therefore, Driving Resistance mus be reduced in order to save fuel.

Vehicle Driving Resistance Includes:

1. Inertia

When a vehicle changes motion, it must overcome the inertia force which depends on the value of the vehicle acceleration and weight.


2. Gravity

This is an inevitable natural force.


3. Air Resistance

This is primarily related to the vehicle’s aerodynamics, such as streamlined body design.


4. Mechanical Friction

This friction is inevitable and comes from the mechanical parts of the vehicle such as engine gear box, bearings, and brakes.


5. Tire Rolling Resistance – Driving Resistance That Is Ignored

Most people tend to ignore the 5th driving resistance – tire rolling resistance. However, it is actually the 3rd largest resistance that affects fuel consumption. When a truck in good condition is traveling at a speed of 80 km/h on a paved road, under standard load and pressure, about 26% of its power is used to overcome the tires’ rolling resistance. Therefore, the effect of tire rolling resistance on fuel consumption cannot be ignored.


 Low Rolling Resistance = Low Fuel Consumption 

With each rotation of the wheel, the tire becomes deformed due to the load. Since both the rubber and internal air are flexible, the tire will be subject to repeated compression and expansion when rolling. All these processes need to consume a certain amount of energy. Part of which is converted into heat and increases the tire temperature. This loss of energy is known as tire rolling resistance.

Silica helps lower rolling resistance


 A tire’s rolling resistance can be controlled! 

1. Choose Low Rolling Resistance Tires

Advanced formula, structure, and pattern design lowers rolling resistance.

1 (1)

2. Maintain Proper Tire Pressure


3. Maintain Proper Wheel Alignment


notify-iconGiti Doctor Advice: avoid overloading to increase tire life and improve fuel efficiency.

Giti Tire provides diverse tire solutions to meet the needs of various road conditions and driving habits for the domestic commercial vehicle market.

t1  t2-1   t3-1

Long Haul Coach All-Position Long Haul Truck All-Position Long Haul Truck Drive Axle


FS: FS: Indicates Fuel Saving Tire

smartwayThe US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay certification test results showed: Gitis’s low rolling resistance tires, GDL 617FS, GSL 213FS, and GTL 922FS can effectively reduce NOx emissions and save at least 3% fuel.


Commercial Truck and Bus Tire Care / Did You Know

Technology Identification and Benefits Fuel Efficient, Eco-Friendly Higher Mileage Higher Mileage Higher Mileage Better Durability Improve Operational Efficiency Extend Tire Life Extend Tire Life Outstanding Service
1 Eco-Friendly Materials                
Latest eco-friendly materials are used to reduce damage to the environment
2 No Aromatic Oils                
Minimizes damage to the environment for better environmental protection
3 Low Rolling Resistance Formula              
Lowers rolling resistance for better fuel efficiency
4 Stone Ejection Technology          
Minimizes stone retention and tire damage
5 Nylon Bead Technology        
Effectively reinforces bead to reduce bead failure
6 EFC Technology        
Optimized tire casing contour for uniform force distribution and better wear resistance
7 Robust Casing Material        
New high-strength casing material for stronger casing
8 Retreadable          
Giti Tire’s retreadable casing structure design provides higher durability and efficiency
9 Regroovable Technology          
All Giti tires are regroovable and designed utilizing thicker groove rubber with a stronger rubber formula to extend tire life
10 Regroovable Indicator            
Regroovable depth indicator is located inside the tread wear indicator for regrooving purposes
11 TWI (Tread Wear Indicator)              
Several places are marked with TWI on the tread base (TWI located on the shoulder) to remind the driver of the tread condition and when to consider regrooving and retreading
12 Retread Buffing Direction              
During retreading, the reference rotation direction of the buffing machine helps prevent belt layers from damage and ensures quality retreads
13 Low Heat Build Up and High Durability Tread Compound      
Excellent wear resistance for higher mileage when traveling long distance at high speeds
14 Durable Tread Formula          
Tread is more resistant to punctures, cuts, and chunks
15 Tire Bar Code                
Unique series of number for convenient identification and after sales claims with quality guarantee
16 Nationwide Warranty Program                
Designated products included in the Nationwide Warranty Program brings you convenient claim settlement services

Overloading will greatly reduce tire life


 Overloading affects driving safety and accelerates tire wear! 

Gain a better understanding of the actual load of domestic truck tires to ensure proper tire pressure. See the Giti Tire Technical Book or ask your Giti Tire representative for more information.

Tire Specification Tire Pressure (kPa) 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Load Capacity (kg)
10.00R20 Single Tire 3500 4250 5000      
  Dual Tire 4500 5000  5500 6000    
11.00R20 Single Tire 3500 4500 5500      
  Dual Tire 5000 5400  5800 6200 6600 7000
12.00R20 Single Tire 4000  5000 6000      
  Dual Tire 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000


 Over inflation will lead to tire blowout which affects driving safety and increases operating costs! 

What Is a Tube Tire?

  • Tire Consists of 3 Components: tire casing, tube, and flap
  • Wheel consists of 5 components and is more susceptible to damage or failure due to the number of components


What Is a Tubeless Tire?

  • Tubeless and tube tires have the same outer diameter so the gear ratio will remain the same before and after a tire change
  • Rim diameter is 2 inches wider and has better heat dissipation; tire + rim = lower tire temperature
  • Carries the same load but with a lighter rim


Tube vs Tubeless: Which One Is Better?

1. Tubeless Tire Is 10% Lighter Than a Tube Tire

Limitations of Tube Tires

2aToo many components lead to lower rolling efficiency

2bIncreased fuel consumption

2cPoor heat dissipation leads to higher tire temperatures and shorter tire life

2dOvate contact areas are more susceptible to partial wear

2eToo many components increases weight

2fDeflates rapidly when punctured

Advantages of Tubeless tires

1aLower sidewalls provide more accurate and safer steering and handling

1bFewer components, less friction, and lower rolling resistance for better fuel savings

1cExcellent heat dissipation leads to lower tire temperatures and longer tire life

1dLeveled rectangular contact areas have uniform wear and increase tire life

1eFewer components lightens weight and reduces fuel consumption

2. Tubeless Tires Reduces Operational Costs

Replacement Tire Size
Wheel Position Steering Wheel Drive Axle Drive Axle Spare Tire Total
Numbers of Tires  2 8  12  2 24


Tubeless Tires Total Cost Savings: USD 912/vehicle  
Item Tube Tire Tubeless Tire Price Difference Number of Tires Total Price Difference
Tire Price (USD) 443 410 33 24 792
Rim Price (USD) 85 80 5 24 120
Total 528  490  230 24  912


3. Tubeless Tires Improve Vehicle Safety and Handling


Wide Base Tires Are Safer, More Economical, and More Eco-Friendly

Utilizes radial, optimal aspect ratio, and tubeless techniques to optimize tire performance and replace regular dual tires.

The following 5 advantages are in line with today’s automotive industry themes of safety, fuel saving, and eco-friendly:

ad1Advantage 1: Lighter Vehicle Weight for Higher Load Capability

  • Wide base tires are lighter than dual tires (i.e. lighter by 30% for 1-1-3 vehicle models)
  • Reduced tire weight can be converted into load capability to bring more economic benefits (i.e. more than RMB 20,000 worth of benefits can be calculated per vehicle per year for 1-1-3 vehicle models)

ad2Advantage 2: Better Fuel Efficiency Lowers Cost

  • Giti Tire’s tests in Yunnan have proven that wide base tires can save more than 4% fuel when compared to dual tires

ad3Advantage 3: Wider Wheelbase and Lower Center of Gravity for Safer and Easier Handling

  • Wheelbase of single tires is about 4% more than that of dual tires
  • Wider wheelbase and lower center of gravity improve vehicle stability for safer and easier handling

ad4Advantage 4: Easier Installation for Higher Operational Efficiency

  • Using the 1-1-3 vehicle model as example, installing 6 single tires on the trailer wheel position is equivalent to installing 12 dual tires which greatly reduces both installation and maintenance time
  • When installing dual tires, tires with different air pressure on the same axle will lead to uneven load and wear which affects operational efficiency

ad5Advantage 5: Better Heat Dissipation Enhances Tire Life

  • Wide base tires have two fewer sidewalls than dual tires, generates less heat, enhances heat dissipation, increases tire wear resistance, and improves tire life

ad6Giti Wide Base Tire GT978+ Less Fuel Consumption Enhanced Durability

What is Nitrogen?


  • Nitrogen (N2) is colorless and tasteless
  • Has low thermal conductivity
  • Nitrogen molecules are larger than oxygen molecules
  • Nitrogen is stable and does not easily react with other substances at room temperature


Advantages of Nitrogen Filled Tires:

n1Minimize Tire Blowouts

Nitrogen’s low thermal conductivity decelerates heat accumulation and significantly reduces tire blowouts

n2Minimize Tire Blowouts

Nitrogen molecules are larger than oxygen molecules and penetrate the tire wall slower than air

n3Minimize Tire Blowouts

Does not contain water or other substances which effectively inhibits the tire and rim from slowly oxidizing and corroding

n4Minimize Tire Blowouts

Nitrogen slows tire pressure loss, decreases tire temperature, and reduces rolling resistance caused by insufficient air pressure and high tire temperatures

notify-iconTip: Nitrogen filing cannot replace routine air pressure maintenance. Please check your tire pressure regularly!